This group revolves around directing our actions and consists of the following areas:
- Desires is the area that focuses on the what (we want). Desires are an essential driving force – it is hard to think what would get us out of bed if we didn’t have a desire (at least to go to the toilet). This is why Desires are the root area of this group.
- Gratification may seem similar but cannot be reduced to Pleasure. While the latter is a sensation, the former is an internal process involving a tension or imbalance reduction. Gratification does not need to provide pleasure (e.g. a food can be fulfilling even if you don’t like it). Pleasure also does not need to be gratifying (gambling may be pleasurable, but is usually not gratifying, especially when you lose). Gratification is closely related to desires though, as desires create the tension between present and desired states.
- Aims: not all desires can be fulfilled straightaway. This area is a counterpart to gratification as it deals with the fulfilment of long term desires. Aims are different from desires though as they are more specific. They involve knowing not only where you want to be, but also how to get there. For example, you may desire to get a degree – to make an aim out of it, you will also need to be clear what you want to study and possibly where and when.
- Resolve refers to the resolution to achieve your aim. An aim is something that you project outside, something that you strive for. Determination and persistence (which are the main topics in this area) are our inner forces that sustain the process of achieving an aim. Accomplishment is the final area in this group as it depends, to some extent, on our desires and aims (as well as an ability to delay immediate gratification). However, while desires and aims are usually associated with the end result, this area is more closely related to the process. All the areas in this group belong to the agency mode and the internal domain as they are mainly about dealing with our mental states and processes. Let’s now look at them in more detail.