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Relationship Group

Relationship Group PDF This group consists of the following areas:Relationship dynamic is the root area of the group because it is relevant for any type of relationship. The relationship process requires both being receptive and being proactive, so it encompasses both...

Interaction Group

Interaction Group PDF This group consists of the areas that constitute human interactions.Appearance is usually the first communication that we make with others (at least in face to face interactions). It has a huge influence on impressions we form of each other and...

Social Attitudes Group

Social Attitudes Group PDF The term ‘social attitudes’ refers to the way we perceive, value, assess, and treat each other. There is no need to emphasise how important these attitudes are on the collective as well as the individual level (e.g. in personal...

49. Dependence

49. Dependence

On stage, I make love to 25,000 different people; and then I go home alone.
Janis Joplin (American rock singer)

Dependence is used here as an umbrella term that covers co- dependence, inter-dependence and independence. Concepts that closely relate to our social (in)dependence, loneliness and solitude, will also be addressed with an emphasis on their difference.


Co-dependence refers to dependence on the needs or the control of another person. It usually involves somebody who places a lower priority on their own needs, while being excessively preoccupied with the needs of others. This is often accompanied by low self- esteem, excessive compliance, or control patterns. Co-dependence can occur in any type of relationship, including family, work, friendship, and intimate relationships. These are asymmetrical relationships, in which one is helping or caring for the other (e.g. an alcoholic partner) in order to keep or control them. In other words a co-dependent relationship perpetuates a status quo so as to remain needed. If you recognise such patterns in some of your relationships, you do not necessarily need to end them, but it would be healthier for all involved to at least address the issue.


Inter-dependence, on the other hand, means cooperating with others. It can also be defined as the interconnectedness and reliance on another physically, emotionally, socially, or economically. While co-dependence may not be healthy, inter- dependence is valuable and important. We all depend on others to some degree: children depend on their carers for food and shelter or on teachers to learn; adults are also dependent on public services or other family members. In fact, we are inter-dependent with just about everything and everybody, even with people we don’t know from different parts of the globe (as they may be producing something that we need).

Identity Group

Identity Group PDF The Identity group is the root group of this category and is concerned with identity formation within the social framework. In other words, it focuses on the relationship (and a possible, but not necessary, tension) between individuality and...

Activity Group

Activity Group PDF Human activities, in a broad sense, include several key elements:Motivation is the root area of this group. It is on the axis of the map because it has a side that can be associated with the internal domain (positive and intrinsic motivation) and...


PWBC (Personal Well Being Centre)
United Kingdom


PWBC (Personal Well Being Centre)
United Kingdom